An Extensive Archive of America's Hundreds of Lies, Treacheries, Wars, False Operations, Torture, and Murders
American USSR: Genocide Being Committed Against Europeans in America
IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965
DESTROYED AMERICA'S NATION
HOW THE JEWS RUINED AMERICA
THROUGH IMMIGRATION, PART 1
HOW THE JEWS RUINED AMERICA
THROUGH IMMIGRATION, PART 2
COST OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION,
PAT BUCHANAN, AMERICA IS
BREAKING INTO ENCLAVES
Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants – perhaps as few as 400,000 – crossed the Atlantic during the 17th and 18th centuries. Relatively few 18th-century immigrants came from England: only 80,000 between 1700 and 1775, compared to 350,000 during the 17th century. In addition, between the 17th and 19th centuries, an estimated 645,000 Africans were brought to what is now the United States. In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1850 to 1930, the foreign born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. The highest percentage of foreign born people in the United States were found in this period, with the peak in 1890 at 14.7%. During this time, the lower costs of Atlantic Ocean travel in time and fare made it more advantageous for immigrants to move to the U.S. than in years prior. From 1880 to 1924, over 25 million Europeans migrated to the United States. Following this time period, immigration fell because in 1924 Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which favored immigrant source countries that already had many immigrants in the U.S. by 1890. Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, and in the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it. Immigration continued to fall throughout the 1940s and 1950s, but it increased again afterwards.
The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act) removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal immigration to the U.S. surged. In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled record 37.5 million. After 2000, immigration to the United States numbered approximately 1,000,000 per year. Despite tougher border scrutiny after 9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history. Almost half entered illegally. In 2006, 1.27 million immigrants were granted legal residence. Mexico has been the leading source of new U.S. residents for over two decades; and since 1998, China, India and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year. The U.S. has often been called the "melting pot" (derived from Carl N. Degler, a historian, author of Out of Our Past), a name derived from United States' rich tradition of immigrants coming to the US looking for something better and having their cultures melded and incorporated into the fabric of the country.
Appointed by President Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, led by Barbara Jordan, called for reducing legal immigration to about 550,000 a year. Since September 11, 2001, the politics of immigration has become an extremely hot issue. It was a central topic of the 2008 election cycle.
The number of foreign nationals who became legal permanent residents (LPRs) of the U.S. in 2009 as a result of family reunification (66 percent) outpaced those who became LPRs on the basis of employment skills (13 percent) and humanitarian reasons (17 percent). Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined.
Glossary of Key Terms In Federal Immigration Law
An aggravated felony is a crime that falls under the definition specified by Federal immigration law. Conviction of an aggravated felony makes a lawful permanent resident deportable. The mere classification of a crime as an aggravated felony by state law does not make it an aggravated felony for purposes of Federal immigration law. Federal immigration law specifies a lengthy list of crimes that constitute aggravated felonies. Most violent crimes are included, such as:
• Murder; • Rape; • Sexual abuse of a minor; • Burglary with a sentence of one year or more; • Theft with a sentence of one year or more; and • Any other crime with an element of physical force with a sentence of one year or more.
Some state law misdemeanors qualify as aggravated felonies for immigration purposes, if the sentence imposed is one year or more. Some examples include misdemeanor assault, menacing, coercion, reckless endangerment, unlawful imprisonment, offensive touching, and theft.
Conviction of an aggravated felony can make a non-citizen removable, ineligible for cancellation of a removal order, and ineligible for naturalization as a U.S. citizen.
An alien is any person who is not a citizen or national of the United States. This includes people with a wide range of statuses, including lawful permanent residents, tourists, students, diplomats, certain workers, refugees and aslyees, and unauthorized immigrants.
An alien may qualify for asylee status if the individual has a well-founded fear of persecution on the basis of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion if returned to the home country or country of last permanent residence. Once admitted the alien will be allowed to stay in the U.S. as long as expulsion from the U.S. would put them at a safety risk, unless he or she meets one of the grounds for loss of status. An asylee is eligible to apply for lawful permanent resident status one year after admission to the U.S. Technically, refugee status is adjudicated while the individual is outside the U.S. while asylee status is adjudicated while the individual is in the U.S.
A U.S. citizen is an individual who has full rights of participation in all political arenas. An individual can become a citizen by birth in the United States or Puerto Rico (or Guam in some cases), by having U.S. parents or grandparents, or by naturalization. A U.S. citizen cannot be deported or removed.
Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS or USCIS)
The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services is the division of the Department of Homeland Security that adjudicates application for immigration benefits, including applications for naturalization, permanent residence, refugee or asylee status, work authorization, and any other changes in immigration status.
Conditional Permanent Resident
Conditional permanent residents include alien spouses and their children who applied for lawful permanent resident status based on a qualifying marriage to a citizen that occurred less than two years before entry as a conditional resident. The conditional status expires on second anniversary of obtaining conditional status unless the alien and his or her spouse have jointly applied for lawful permanent resident status prior to that time and CIS has removed the condition.
Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
Customs and Border Protection is the division of the Department of Homeland Security responsible for inspecting persons entering the U.S. at border points of entry. CBP has the power to order a person removed without a hearing before an immigration judge if the person is inadmissible for lack of proper documentation or fraud.
Board of Immigration Appeals
The Board of Immigration Appeals hears appeals from the Immigration Courts and appeals from decisions of the USCIS on applications for immigration benefits. It is a division of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Executive Office of Immigration Review (EOIR)
The Executive Office of Immigration review is a division of the U.S. Department of Justice. The office includes the Immigration Courts throughout the country, which determine whether non-citizens are inadmissible or deportable and consider applications for discretionary relief from removal orders, and the Board of Immigration Appeals, which hears appeals from the Immigration Courts and appeals from decisions of the USCIS on applications for immigration benefits.
Family-sponsored visas are visas for admission as a lawful permanent resident for family members of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents. The preferences and numerical limitations for admission are determined by the status of the sponsoring family member (relatives of U.S. citizens have priority over relatives of lawful permanent residents) and the degree of connection to the sponsoring family member. Overall, about 80% of all legal immigration into the U.S. is through some type of family-sponsored visa.
The family relationships that can provide the basis of a family-sponsored visa are: spouse, unmarried child under 21, parent (if sponsor is a citizen 21 or older), unmarried son or daughter 21 or older, married son or daughter, and brother or sister.
Federal Immigration Law
Federal immigration law generally is found in U.S. Code Title 8.
Good Moral Character
For purposes of Federal immigration law, good moral character is not determined by a single act, but rather by a person’s actions generally. It does not require perfection, but is a measure of a person’s character measured by the sum of all his or her actions. Federal immigration law contains a list of activities that negate good moral character but also provides that a person who has not engaged in any of the listed activities may still be found to be not of good moral character for other reasons.
The statute provides that an individual who is or has engaged in any of the following is not of good moral character:
• Habitual drunkard; • Prostitution or other commercialized vice; • Receiving one’s primary income from illegal gambling; • Conviction of two or more gambling offenses; • Conviction of a crime of moral turpitude; • Multiple convictions with aggregate sentence of more than five years; • Drug trafficking; • Giving false testimony for the purpose of gaining benefits under Title 8, Chapter 12; • Confinement in a penal institution for an aggregate of 180 days or more; • Conviction of an aggravated felony; • Smuggling aliens into the U.S.; • Polygamy; • Crime related to a controlled substance; • Participation in Nazi persecution or religious persecution; and • Illegal voting or falsely claiming U.S. citizenship.
Being of good moral character is a requirement for certain immigration benefits, including eligibility to become a naturalized citizen, eligibility for the T visa, and eligibility for adjustment from non-permanent status to permanent resident status (including as a VAWA self-petitioner).
This refers to aliens who are in the United States without legal permission. See also undocumented alien/undocumented immigrant/unauthorized immigrant.
The term “immigrant” in federal Immigration law is used as a term of art referring to every alien who does not fall into a non-immigrant category.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
Immigration and Customs Enforcement is the division of the Department of Homeland Security responsible for finding and removing unauthorized immigrants. It is the former Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Immigration Courts throughout the country determine whether non-citizens are inadmissible or deportable and consider applications for discretionary relief from removal orders. They also conduct bond redetermination hearings. They are a division of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR)
A grant of lawful permanent resident (LPR) status allows an alien to reside and work permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as green card holders. To be eligible for LPR status, the applicant must indicate an intention to reside permanently in the US. The LPR status must be renewed every ten years. Conviction of a variety of specified crimes may result in loss of LPR status and removal.
The following are the major underlying visa petition categories through which an alien can acquire lawful permanent status.
• Family-based visas: unmarried sons or daughters of citizens; spouses and children of LPRs; unmarried sons or daughters (not a child) of LPRs; married sons or daughters of citizens; brothers or sisters of citizens. • Employment-based visas: (1) priority workers (aliens who possess extraordinary ability, professors or researchers, multinational executives); (2) aliens who hold advanced degrees or possess exceptional ability; (3) certain classes of skilled workers, professionals, or other workers who perform jobs for which qualified workers are not available in the US. • Diversity-based visas: as determined by the Attorney General.
An alien can also acquire lawful permanent resident status through other means, such as by adjusting status from that of a refugee or asylee.
A naturalized citizen is a foreign born individual who has been granted full rights as a United States citizen other than through birth to a U.S. citizen parent.
To become a naturalized U.S. citizen, an alien must:
• Be 18 years of age; • Be lawfully admitted for permanent residence (see below); • Have resided continuously in the United States for five years (or three years if married to a U.S. citizen) after being admitted for LPR status and been physically present in the U.S. at least half time during the five years prior to filing the application for citizenship; • Be of good moral character; and • Support the Constitution and be disposed to the good order and happiness of the U.S.
A non-immigrant visa is a visa issued to an alien for permission to enter the United States on a temporary basis for a specified purpose. Examples of non-immigrant visas include visas for visitors, students, and certain specified temporary work categories.
Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS)
Federal law defines a juvenile as anyone who has not reached his or her eighteenth birthday. Special immigrant juvenile status is available for an alien juvenile under the following conditions:
• There is a finding by a court in the United States with juvenile jurisdiction that the juvenile: is dependent on the court and placed in the custody of an agency or department of a state or an individual or entity appointed by the state or a juvenile court located in the United States; and whose reunification with one or both parents is not viable due to abuse, neglect, or abandonment or a similar basis; • There is an administrative or judicial finding that it would not be in the best interest of the juvenile to be returned to the juvenile’s or parent’s previous country of nationality or country of last habitual residence; • The juvenile has concurrently applied for lawful permanent resident status; and • The dependency case was not filed as a sham solely to obtain immigrant status.
The “T” visa is available for individuals who have been the victims of severe human trafficking and have assisted in the investigation or prosecution of traffickers. The maximum length of stay under the “T” visa status is four years unless extended. The holder of a T visa is eligible to apply for lawful permanent resident status if he or she is of good moral character and has been continuously in the U.S. for three years.
Temporary Protected Status
An alien from a select list of countries can get temporary protected status, which includes the right to work, without showing that he or she would be a target of persecution.
Non-immigrant visitors may legally enter the United States on a temporary visa for a limited period of time. Eligible aliens include vacationers, students, certain classes of temporary workers, and a variety of specialized categories. The authorized length of stay is specified in the visa. This is also called a non-immigrant visa.
The “U” visa is available to non-immigrant aliens who: (1) have suffered severe physical or mental abuse as a result of being a victim of criminal activity; (2) have been, are being, or are likely to be of help to a Federal, state, or local investigation of the criminal activity causing the abuse; and (3) have certification from a Federal, state, or local judge, prosecutor, law enforcement officer, or other justice system official involved in prosecuting the criminal activity that he or she has been, is being, or is likely to be of help to a Federal, state, or local investigation of the criminal activity causing the abuse. The maximum length of the “U” visa is four years unless extended. The holder of a U visa is eligible to apply for lawful permanent resident status with three years of continuous residence after receiving U visa status.
VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) Self-Petitioner
An alien who is the victim of severe domestic violence married to or a child of a citizen or LPR may petition for LPR status without the cooperation of the abusing spouse under the self-petitioning provisions of the VAWA. The petitioner must show that:
• The spouse or child has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by citizen or lawful permanent resident spouse; • The act or threatened act was one of extreme cruelty, including physical violence, sexual abuse, forced detention, or psychological abuse against the petitioner or petitioner’s child by the spouse during the marriage; • The marriage legal and in good faith; • The petitioner is not the primary perpetrator of the violence; and • The petitioner is of good moral character.
Unauthorized Immigrant/Undocumented Alien/Undocumented Immigrant
These are terms for an alien who is in the United States without legal permission through an officially issued visa or as otherwise provided in Federal immigration law.
The Cato Institute finds little or no effect of immigration on income of native born. The Brookings Institution finds a 2.3% depression of wages from immigration from 1980 to 2007. The Center for Immigration Studies finds a 3.7% depression wages from immigration from 1980 to 2000.
According to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, "In Europe, 28 percent of foreigners between the ages of 25 and 49 are unable to find work, with unemployment rates as high as 35 percent for Turks and Pakistanis and 60 percent for recent immigrant groups such as Somalis."
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This article's further reading may not follow Wikipedia's content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive, less relevant or many publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (February 2010)
Appel, Jacob. The Ethical Case for an Open Immigration Policy May 4, 2009.
Balin, Bryan. State Immigration Legislation and Immigrant Flows: An Analysis Johns Hopkins University, 2008.
Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Center for Immigration Studies Refer to "Publications" for research on illegal immigration, demographic trends, terrorism concerns, environmental impact, and other subjects.
De La Torre, Miguel A., Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on Immigration. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2009.
Esbenshade, Jill. Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2007.
Ewing, Walter A. Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring 2006.
Freeman, Joe. Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
Immigration Policy Center. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November 2005.
Karakayali, Nedim. 2005. “Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant Children: Rethinking the ‘Problem of Second Generation’ in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies”, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 325–344.
Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century until the End of the Gilded Age. BOD, 2009. ISBN 3837093034
Massey, Douglas S. Beyond the Border Buildup: Towards a New Approach to Mexico-U.S. Migration. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, September 2005.
Massey, Douglas S., Joaquín Arango, Hugo Graeme, Ali Kouaouci, Adela , Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor.Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-928276-5
Meilander, Peter C. Towards a Theory of Immigration. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 978-0312240349
Molina, Natalia. Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1940. University of California Press, 2006.
Myers, Dowell. Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America. Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4
Passel, Jeffrey S. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2005.
Passel, Jeffrey S. Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2007.
Passel, Jeffrey S. and Roberto Suro. Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration. Pew Hispanic Center, September 2005.
Pearce, Susan C. Immigrant Women in the United States: A Demographic Portrait. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2006.
Portes, Alejandro and József Böröcz, "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation" International Migration Review, 23,3, Silver Anniversary Issue, International Migration: an Assessment for the 90's. (Autumn, 1989), pp. 606–630.
Rumbaut, Ruben and Walter Ewing. "The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men." The Immigration Policy Center, Spring 2007.
Sirkeci, Ibrahim The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, ISBN 978-0-7734-5739 New York, Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
Valle, Isabel. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey. ISBN 978-0-87422-101-5
West, Lorane A. Color: Latino Voices in the Pacific Northwest. ISBN 978-0-87422-274-6
Zolberg, Aristide. A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0674022181
Immigration and Migration from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Immigration Newspaper Archive A collection of more than 50,000 searchable newspaper articles on Immigration.
Princeton Center for Migration and Development—a leading research center on migration to the USA
Casahistoria - European emigration since 1800—links to 19th & 20th century global European emigration
Do Foreigners Have Rights? François Crépeau, Professor of International Law, University of Montreal
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