American USSR

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Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was an American man who, according to four government investigations,[n 1] killed John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, using a firearm in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.

A former U.S. Marine who had briefly defected to the Soviet Union, Oswald was initially arrested for the shooting murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, on a Dallas street approximately 40 minutes after Kennedy was shot. Suspected in the assassination of Kennedy as well, Oswald denied involvement in either killing. Two days later, while being transferred from police headquarters to the county jail, Oswald was mortally wounded by nightclub owner Jack Ruby in full view of television cameras broadcasting live.

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy, a conclusion also reached by prior investigations carried out by the FBI and Dallas Police Department.



Oswald was born in New Orleans on October 18, 1939,[1] to Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. (New Orleans, Louisiana, March 4, 1896 – New Orleans, August 19, 1939) and Marguerite Frances Claverie (New Orleans, Louisiana, July 19, 1907 – Fort Worth, Texas, January 17, 1981). Oswald had two older siblings – brother Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Jr. and half-brother John Edward Pic.[2]

Oswald's father died prior to Oswald's birth, and Marguerite raised her sons alone. When Oswald was two, his mother placed her sons at the Bethlehem Children's Home orphanage in New Orleans for thirteen months, as she was unable to support them.[citation needed] On May 7, 1945, his mother married Edwin Albert Ekdahl (1895–1953) in Fort Worth, Texas; he engaged in numerous extra-marital affairs and filed for divorce in 1948.[citation needed]

As a child, Oswald was withdrawn and temperamental.[3] In August 1952, while living with half-brother John Pic, at the time a U.S. Coast Guardsman stationed in New York City, Oswald and Marguerite were asked to leave after Oswald allegedly threatened Pic's wife with a knife and struck their mother, Marguerite.[2][4][5]

Charges of truancy, in the Bronx (NYC), led to psychiatric assessment[2] at a juvenile reformatory, the psychiatrist, Dr. Renatus Hartogs, describing Oswald's "vivid fantasy life, turning around the topics of omnipotence and power, through which he tries to compensate for his present shortcomings and frustrations." Finding a "personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive-aggressive tendencies," Dr. Hartogs recommended continued treatment.[6] However, in January 1954, Oswald's mother Marguerite returned with him to New Orleans.[2][7] At the time, there was a question pending before a New York judge as to whether Oswald should be removed from the care of his mother to finish his schooling,[8] although his behavior appeared to improve during his last months in New York.[9][10]

In New Orleans, in October 1955, Oswald left the 10th grade after one month.[11] He worked as an office clerk or messenger around New Orleans, rather than attend school. Planning for his enlistment,[2] the family returned to Fort Worth in July 1956, and he re-enrolled in 10th grade for the September session, but quit in October to join the Marines (see below);[2] he never received a high school diploma. By the of age 17, he had resided at 22 different locations and attended 12 different schools.[n 2]

Though he had trouble spelling[2] and writing coherently[12] he read voraciously, and by age 15 claimed to be a Marxist, writing in his diary, "I was looking for a key to my environment, and then I discovered socialist literature. I had to dig for my books in the back dusty shelves of libraries." At 16 he wrote to the Socialist Party of America for information on their Young People's Socialist League, saying he had been studying socialist principles for "well over fifteen months."[13] (However, Edward Voebel, "whom the Warren Commission had established was Oswald's closest friend during his teenage years in New Orleans...said that reports that Oswald was already[when?] 'studying Communism' were a 'lot of baloney.' " Voebel said that "Oswald commonly read 'paperback trash.' ")[14][15]

Marine Corps

Oswald when he served in the US Marine Corps

Oswald enlisted in the United States Marine Corps on October 24, 1956, just after his seventeenth birthday. He idolized his older brother Robert, and a photograph shows that Lee wore, even after his arrest and handcuffing by Dallas police, Robert's Marines ring.[16] Enlistment may also have been an escape from Oswald's overbearing mother.[17]

Oswald's primary training was as a radar operator, a position requiring a security clearance. A May 1957 document states that he was "granted final clearance to handle classified matter up to and including CONFIDENTIAL after careful check of local records had disclosed no derogatory data."[18] In the Aircraft Control and Warning Operator Course he finished seventh in a class of thirty. The course "...included instruction in aircraft surveillance and the use of radar."[19] He was assigned first to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in July 1957,[20] then to Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Japan in September as part of Marine Air Control Squadron 1.

Like all Marines, Oswald was trained and tested in shooting, scoring 212 in December 1956[11] (slightly above the minimum for qualification as a sharpshooter) but in May 1959 scoring only 191[11] (barely earning the lower designation of marksman).[21]

Oswald was court-martialed after accidentally shooting himself in the elbow with an unauthorized handgun, then court-martialed again for fighting with a sergeant he thought responsible for his punishment in the shooting matter. He was demoted from private first class to private and briefly imprisoned. He was later punished for a third incident: while on nighttime sentry duty in the Philippines, he inexplicably fired his rifle into the jungle.[22]

Slightly built, Oswald was nicknamed Ozzie Rabbit after the cartoon character, or sometimes Oswaldskovich because of his pro-Soviet sentiments. In December 1958 he transferred back to El Toro,[23] where his unit's function "...was to serveil [sic] for aircraft, but basically to train both enlisted men and officers for later assignment overseas." An officer there termed Oswald a "very competent" crew chief.[24]

Oswald subscribed on January 2, 1963 to a Communist newspaper, the Daily Worker, and claimed[when?] to have taught himself rudimentary Russian, but in February 1959, he rated "poor" on a Marine proficiency exam in written and spoken Russian.[25]

Defection to the Soviet Union

In October 1959, just before turning 20, Oswald traveled to the Soviet Union, the trip planned well in advance.[when?] Along with his self-taught Russian, he had saved $1,500 of his Marine Corps salary,[n 3] got a hardship discharge (claiming his mother needed care)[11][26] obtained a passport, and submitted several fictional applications to foreign universities in order to obtain a student visa.[clarification needed]

Oswald spent two days with his mother in Fort Worth, then embarked by ship from New Orleans on September 20 to Le Havre, France, then immediately proceeded to England. Arriving in Southampton on October 9, he told officials he had $700 and planned to remain in the United Kingdom for one week before proceeding to a school in Switzerland. But on the same day, he flew to Helsinki, where he was issued a Soviet visa on October 14. Oswald left Helsinki by train on the following day, crossed the Soviet border at Vainikkala, and arrived in Moscow on October 16.[27]

Almost immediately, Oswald told his Intourist guide of his desire to become a Soviet citizen,[28] but was told on October 21 that his application had been refused. Oswald then inflicted a minor but bloody wound to his left wrist in his hotel room bathtub, after which the Soviets put him under psychiatric observation at a hospital.[29][30]

On October 31, Oswald appeared at the United States embassy in Moscow, declaring a desire to renounce his U.S. citizenship.[31][32] John McVickar, an official at the U.S. embassy, felt that Oswald, "...was following a pattern of behavior in which he had been tutored by [a] person or persons unknown...seemed to be using words which he had learned but did not fully short, it seemed to me that there was a possibility that he had been in contact with others before or during his Marine Corps tour who had guided him and encouraged him in his actions."[33] Oswald told the interviewing officer at the U.S. embassy, Richard Snyder, "...that he had been a radar operator in the Marine Corps and that he had voluntarily stated to unnamed Soviet officials[when?] that as a Soviet citizen he would make known to them such information concerning the Marine Corps and his speciality as he possessed. He intimated that he might know something of special interest."[34] (Such statements led to Oswald's hardship/honorable military discharge being changed to undesirable.)[35] The Associated Press story of the defection of a U.S. Marine to the Soviet Union was reported on the front pages of some newspapers in 1959.[36]

Marina Prusakova, Minsk 1959

Though Oswald had wanted to attend Moscow University, he was sent to Minsk to work as a lathe operator at the Gorizont (Horizon) Electronics Factory, a facility producing radios, televisions, and military and space electronics. He also received a subsidized,[clarification needed] fully furnished studio apartment in a prestigious building and an additional supplement to his factory pay—all in all, an idyllic existence by Soviet working-class standards,[37] although he was under constant surveillance.[38]

But Oswald grew bored in Minsk.[39] He wrote in his diary in January 1961: "I am starting to reconsider my desire about staying. The work is drab, the money I get has nowhere to be spent. No nightclubs or bowling alleys, no places of recreation except the trade union dances. I have had enough."[40] Shortly afterwards, Oswald (who had never formally renounced his U.S. citizenship) wrote to the U.S. Embassy in Moscow requesting return of his American passport, and proposing to return to the U.S. if any charges against him would be dropped.[41] (In 1964, Oswald's mother released an audio album, The Oswald Case: Mrs. Marguerite Oswald Reads Lee Harvey Oswald's Letters from Russia, on which she also comments on his letters.)[42]

In March 1961, Oswald met Marina Nikolayevna Prusakova, a 19-year-old pharmacology student; they married less than six weeks later in April.[n 4][43] The Oswalds' first child, June, was born on February 15, 1962. On May 24, 1962, Oswald and Marina applied at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow for documents enabling her to immigrate to the U.S. and, on June 1, the U.S. Embassy gave Oswald a repatriation loan of $435.71.[44] Oswald, Marina, and their infant daughter left for the United States, where they received no attention from the press, much to Oswald's disappointment.[clarification needed][45]


The Oswalds soon settled in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, where his mother and brother Robert lived, and Oswald began a memoir on Soviet life. Though he eventually gave up the project, his search for literary feedback put him in touch with anti-Communist Russian émigrés in the area.[citation needed] In testimony given before the Warren Commission, Alexander Kleinlerer said that the Russian émigrés sympathized with Marina, while merely tolerating Oswald who they regarded as belligerent and arrogant.[46][n 5]

Although the Russian émigrés eventually abandoned Marina when she made no sign of leaving Oswald,[47] Oswald found an unlikely friend in 51-year-old Russian émigré George de Mohrenschildt, a well-educated petroleum geologist with intelligence connections.[48] (A native of Russia, de Mohrenschildt told the Warren Commission that Oswald had a "...remarkable fluency in Russian.")[49] Marina, meanwhile, befriended Ruth Paine,[50] a Quaker who was trying to learn Russian, and her husband Michael who worked for Bell Helicopter.[51] (Ruth Paine said that she first met the Oswalds at a party arranged by George de Mohrenschildt.)[52]

In July 1962, Oswald was hired by Dallas' Leslie Welding Company; he disliked the work and quit after three months. In October he was hired by the graphic-arts firm of Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall as a photoprint trainee,[n 6] but his inefficiency and rudeness were such that fights threatened to break out,[n 7][clarification needed] and he was seen[by whom?] reading a Russian publication, Krokodil.[n 8] He was fired during the first week of April 1963.[53] He may have used equipment at the firm to forge identification documents.[54][clarification needed]

Attempt on life of General Walker

The Warren Commission concluded that on April 10, 1963, Oswald attempted to kill retired U.S. Major General Edwin Walker,[55] an outspoken anti-communist, segregationist, and member of the John Birch Society who had been relieved of his command in 1962 for distributing right-wing literature to subordinates. His actions in opposition to racial integration at the University of Mississippi led to his arrest on insurrection, seditious conspiracy, and other charges, but a grand jury refused to indict him. Oswald considered Walker the leader of a "fascist organization."[clarification needed][56]

In March 1963, Oswald purchased a 6.5 mm caliber Carcano rifle (commonly but improperly called Mannlicher-Carcano) by mail, using the alias A. Hidell.[57] as well as a .38 Smith & Wesson Model 10 revolver by the same method.[58]

The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald fired at Walker through a window, from less than 100 feet (30 m) away, as Walker sat at a desk in his home; the bullet struck the windowframe and Walker's only injury was bullet fragments to the forearm. Oswald returned home and told Marina what he had done.[citation needed] (The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations stated that the "evidence strongly suggested" that Oswald carried out the shooting.)[59]

At the time, Dallas police had no suspects in the shooting,[60] but Oswald's involvement was suspected within hours of his arrest following the Kennedy assassination.[61] (A note Oswald left for Marina on the night of the attempt, telling her what to do if he did not return, was not found until early December 1963.)[62][63][64] The Walker bullet was too damaged to run conclusive ballistics studies on it,[65] but neutron activation analysis later showed that it was "extremely likely" that it was made by the same manufacturer and for the same rifle make as the two bullets which later struck Kennedy.[n 9]

New Orleans

Oswald rented an apartment in this building in Uptown New Orleans c. May–September 1963
Oswald passing out "Fair Play for Cuba" leaflets in New Orleans, August 16, 1963
Oswald's mugshot following his arrest in New Orleans

Oswald returned to New Orleans on April 24, 1963.[66] Marina's friend, Ruth Paine, drove her by car from Dallas to join Oswald in New Orleans the next month in May.[67] On May 10, Oswald was hired by the Reily Coffee Company whose owner (William Reily) was a backer of the Crusade to Free Cuba Committee, an anti-Castro organization.[68] Oswald worked as a machinery greaser at Reily, but he was fired in July "...because his work was not satisfactory and because he spent too much time loitering in [Adrian Alba's] garage next door, where he read rifle and hunting magazines."[69][70] (Alba was proprietor of the Crescent City Garage and had a contract to look after a number of cars for the nearby Secret Service and FBI offices.)[71][72][73]

On May 26, Oswald wrote to the New York City headquarters of the pro-Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee, proposing to rent "...a small office at my own expense for the purpose of forming a FPCC branch here in New Orleans."[74] Three days later, the FPCC responded to Oswald's letter advising against opening a New Orleans office "at least not ... at the very beginning."[75] In a follow-up letter, Oswald replied, "Against your advice, I have decided to take an office from the very beginning."[76]

As the sole member of the New Orleans chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, Oswald ordered the following items from a local printer: 500 application forms, 300 membership cards, and 1,000 leaflets with the heading, "Hands Off Cuba."[77] According to Lee Oswald's wife Marina, Lee told her to sign the name "A.J. Hidell" as chapter president on his membership card.[78]

On August 5th and 6th, according to anti-Castro militant Carlos Bringuier, Oswald visited him at a store he owned in New Orleans. Bringuier was the New Orleans delegate for the Student Revolutionary Directorate (DRE), an anti-Castro organization. Bringuier would later tell the Warren Commission that he believed Oswald's visits were an attempt by Oswald to infiltrate his group.[79] On August 9, Oswald turned up in downtown New Orleans handing out pro-Castro leaflets. Bringuier confronted Oswald, claiming he was tipped off about Oswald's leafleting by a friend. A scuffle ensued and Oswald, Bringuier, and two of Bringuier's friends were arrested for disturbing the peace.[80] Before leaving the police station, Oswald asked to speak with an FBI agent. Agent John Quigley arrived and spent over an hour talking to Oswald.[81]

A week later, on August 16, Oswald again passed out Fair Play for Cuba leaflets with two hired helpers, this time in front of the International Trade Mart. The incident was filmed by WDSU -- the local TV station.[82] The next day, Oswald was interviewed by WDSU radio commentator William Stuckey, who probed Oswald's background.[83][84] A few days later, Oswald accepted Stuckey's invitation to take part in a radio debate with Carlos Bringuier and Bringuier's associate Edward Butler, head of the right-wing Information Council of the Americas (INCA).[85][86]

One of Oswald's Fair Play for Cuba leaflets had the address "544 Camp Street" hand-stamped on it, apparently by Oswald himself.[87] The address was in the "Newman Building" which, from October 1961 to February 1962, housed the militant anti-Castro group, the Cuban Revolutionary Council.[88][89] Around the corner but located in the same building, with a different entrance, was the address 531 Lafayette Street -- the address of "Guy Banister Associates", a private detective agency run by former FBI agent Guy Banister. Banister's office was involved in anti-Castro and intelligence activities in the New Orleans area.[90][91]

In the late-1970s, the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) investigated the possible relationship of Oswald to Banister's office. While the committee was unable to interview Guy Banister (who died in 1964), the committee did interview his brother Ross Banister. Ross "...told the committee that his brother had mentioned seeing Oswald hand out Fair Play for Cuba literature on one occasion. Ross theorized that Oswald had used the 544 Camp Street address on his literature to embarrass Guy."[92]

Guy Banister's secretary, Delphine Roberts, told author Anthony Summers that she saw Oswald at Banister's office, and that he filled out one of Banister's "agent" application forms. She said, "Oswald came back a number of times. He seemed to be on familiar terms with Banister and with the office."[93] The House Select Committee on Assassinations investigated Roberts' claims and said that "because of contradictions in Roberts' statements to the committee and lack of independent corroboration of many of her statements, the reliability of her statements could not be determined."[94]

Oswald's mid-1963 New Orleans activities were later investigated by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison, as part of his prosecution of Clay Shaw in 1969. Garrison was particularly interested in an associate of Guy Banister -- a man named David Ferrie[95] and his possible connection to Oswald, which Ferrie himself denied.[96] Ferrie died before Garrison could complete his investigation.[97]

In 1993, the PBS television program Frontline obtained a photograph, taken eight years before the assassination, showing Oswald and Ferrie at a Civil Air Patrol cookout with other C.A.P. cadets.[clarification needed][98]


Marina's friend, Ruth Paine, transported Marina by car from New Orleans to Dallas on September 23, 1963.[99][100] Oswald stayed in New Orleans at least two more days to collect a $33 unemployment check. It is uncertain when he left New Orleans: he is next known to have boarded a bus in Houston—bound for the Mexican border, rather than Dallas, and telling other passengers he planned to travel to Cuba via Mexico.[101] In Mexico City, he applied for a transit visa at the Cuban Embassy,[102] claiming he wanted to visit Cuba on his way back to the Soviet Union. Cuban officials insisted Oswald would need Soviet approval, but he was unable to get prompt co-operation from that embassy.

After five days of shuttling between consulates, a heated argument with the Cuban consul, impassioned pleas to KGB agents, and at least some CIA scrutiny,[103] Oswald was told by the Cuban consul that he was disinclined to approve the visa, saying "a person like [Oswald] in place of aiding the Cuban Revolution, was doing it harm."[104] Nonetheless, on October 18, the Cuban embassy indeed approved the visa, but Oswald did not in fact embark for Cuba.[citation needed] (Eleven days before the assassination of Kennedy, Oswald wrote to the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C., saying, "Had I been able to reach the Soviet Embassy in Havana as planned, the embassy there would have had time to complete our business.")[clarification needed][105][106]

Return to Dallas

Texas Schoolbook Depository, where Oswald was an employee

Instead, on October 3, Oswald left by bus for Dallas. According to the Warren Commission, on October 14, a neighbor told Ruth Paine that there was a job opening at the Texas School Book Depository. Mrs. Paine informed Oswald who was interviewed at the Depository and was hired there on October 16.[107] Oswald's supervisor, Roy Truly, said that Oswald "did a good day's work" and was an above average employee.[108] During the week, Oswald stayed in a Dallas rooming house (under the name O.H. Lee),[109] but he spent his weekends with Marina at the Paine home in Irving. Oswald did not drive, but commuted to and from Dallas on Mondays and Fridays with a neighbor, Wesley Buell Frazier, who worked at the Book Depository. On October 20, the Oswalds' second daughter was born. FBI agents twice visited the Paine home in early November, when Oswald was not present, looking for information on Marina, whom they suspected of being a Soviet agent.[110] Oswald visited the Dallas FBI office about 7 to 10 days before the assassination, asking to see Special Agent James Hosty; told Hosty was unavailable, Oswald left a note that, according to the receptionist, read: "Let this be a warning. I will blow up the FBI and the Dallas Police Department if you don’t stop bothering my wife. Signed - Lee Harvey Oswald." The note contained some sort of threat, but accounts varied widely as to whether Oswald threatened to "blow up the FBI" or merely "report this to higher authorities" [111] Hosty reported to the Warren Commision under testimony, the note said "if you have anything you want to learn about me, come talk to me directly. If you don't cease bothering my wife, I will take the appropriate action and report this to the proper authorities." According to Hosty, two days after the assassination, Dallas FBI Special Agent-in-Charge J. Gordon Shanklin ordered Hosty to destroy the note. [112][113]

In the days before Kennedy's arrival, several newspapers described the route of the presidential motorcade as passing the Book Depository.[114] On November 21 (a Thursday) Oswald asked his co-worker Frazier for an unusual mid-week lift back to Irving, saying he had to pick up some curtain rods. The next morning (Friday) he returned to Dallas with Frazier; he left behind $170 and his wedding ring,[115] but took with him a long paper bag.[116] He was last seen by a co-worker on the sixth floor of the Depository about 30 minutes before the assassination.[clarification needed][n 10]

Shootings of Kennedy and Tippit

According to government investigations (including that of the Warren Commission) as Kennedy's motorcade passed through Dallas's Dealey Plaza about 12:30 p.m. on November 22, Oswald fired from a window on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, killing the President and seriously wounding Texas Governor John Connally. Bystander James Tague received a minor facial injury.

Dallas PD color mugshot November 23, 1963

According to the Warren Commission, immediately after firing Oswald hid the rifle behind some boxes and descended the rear stairwell. About ninety seconds after the shooting, in the second-floor lunchroom he encountered a police officer accompanied by Oswald's supervisor; the officer let Oswald pass after the supervisor identified him as an employee. (According to the officer, Oswald was drinking a soda and did not appear to be nervous or out of breath.) Oswald crossed to the front staircase, and left the building just before police sealed it off. The supervisor later pointed out to officers that Oswald was the only employee to absent himself after the assassination.[117][118]

At about 12:40 p.m. Oswald boarded a city bus but (probably due to heavy traffic) he requested a transfer from the driver and got off two blocks later.[119] He took a taxicab to his rooming house, at 1026 North Beckley, which he entered about 1:00 p.m., "walking pretty fast" according to his housekeeper.[120] He soon left wearing a jacket, and was last seen by the housekeeper by the stop for a bus route heading back to downtown Dallas.[121]

About four-fifths of a mile (1.3 km) away, Patrolman J. D. Tippit pulled alongside Oswald on a residential street and spoke to him through a window.[122] At approximately 1:11–1:14 p.m.,[n 11] Tippit exited his car and was immediately struck and killed by four shots.[123][124] Numerous witnesses heard the shots and saw a man flee the scene holding a revolver.[125][n 12] Four cartridge cases found at the scene were identified by expert witnesses before the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee as having been fired from the revolver later found in Oswald's possession, to the exclusion of all other weapons.[126][127]

Oswald's seat in the Texas Theater
Oswald being led from the Texas Theater after his arrest inside


Minutes later, Oswald was seen "ducking into" the entrance alcove of a shoe store, apparently avoiding passing police cars. Soon after, the store's manager saw Oswald slip into the nearby Texas Theater without paying.[128] He alerted the theater's ticket clerk, who telephoned police.[129]

As police arrived, the house lights were brought up as the store manager pointed out Oswald sitting near the rear. Oswald appeared to surrender (saying, "Well, it is all over now") but then struck an officer; he was disarmed after a struggle.[130] As he was led from the theater, Oswald shouted he was a victim of police brutality.[131]

At about 2 p.m., Oswald arrived at the Police Department building, where he was questioned by Detective Jim Leavelle about the shooting of Officer Tippit. When Captain J. W. Fritz heard Oswald's name, he recognized it as that of the Book Depository employee who was reported missing and was already a suspect in the assassination.[132][133] Oswald was booked[when?] for both murders, and by the end of the night he had been arraigned as well.[134]

Soon after his capture Oswald encountered reporters in a hallway, declaring "I didn't shoot anyone" and "They're taking me in because of the fact I lived in the Soviet Union. I'm just a patsy!" Later, at an arranged press meeting, a reporter asked, "Did you kill the President?" and Oswald, who by that time had been advised of the charge of murdering Tippit, but not yet arraigned in Kennedy's death, answered "No, I have not been charged with that. In fact, nobody has said that to me yet. The first thing I heard about it was when the newspaper reporters in the hall asked me that question." As he was led from the room, "What did you do in the USSR?" was called out, and "How did you hurt your eye?"; Oswald answered, "A policeman hit me."[135][136][137]

Police interrogation

Fake selective service (draft) card in the name of Alek James Hidell, found on Oswald when arrested. A.Hidell was the name used on both envelope and order slip to buy the murder weapon (see CE 773),[138] and A. J. Hidell was the alternate name on the New Orleans post office box rented June 11, 1963, by Oswald.[139] Both the murder weapon and the pistol in Oswald's possession at arrest had earlier been shipped (at separate times) to Oswald's Dallas P.O. Box 2915, as ordered by "A. J. Hidell".[140]
Oswald, handcuffed to Detective James Leavelle (light clothing), is shot by Jack Ruby.
The grave of Lee Harvey Oswald

Oswald was interrogated several times during his two days at Dallas Police Headquarters. He denied killing Kennedy and Tippit, denied owning a rifle, said two photographs of him holding a rifle and a pistol were fakes, denied telling his co-worker he wanted a ride to Irving to get curtain rods for his apartment, and denied carrying a long heavy package to work the morning of the assassination. The Warren Commission also noted that Oswald denied knowing an A. J. Hidell, and when shown a forged Selective Service card bearing that name in his possession when arrested, refused to answer any questions concerning it, saying " have the card yourself and you know as much about it as I do." [141] The Warren Commission noted that this "spurious" card bore the name of Alek James Hidell. [142]

During his first interrogation on Friday, November 22, Oswald was asked to account for himself at the time the President was shot. Oswald said he ate lunch in the Depository's first-floor lunchroom, then went to the second floor for a Coca-Cola, where he encountered the policeman.[143] During his last interrogation on November 24, Oswald was asked again where he was at the time of the shooting; he said he was working on an upper floor when it occurred, then went downstairs where he encountered the officer.[144]

Oswald asked for legal representation several times while being interrogated, as well as in encounters with reporters. But when representatives of the Dallas Bar Association met with him in his cell on Saturday, he declined their services, saying he wanted to be represented by John Abt, chief counsel to the Communist Party USA, or by lawyers associated with the American Civil Liberties Union.[145][146] Both Oswald and Ruth Paine tried to reach Abt by telephone several times Saturday and Sunday,[147][148] but Abt was away for the weekend.[149] Oswald also declined his brother Robert's offer on Saturday to obtain a local attorney.[150]


On Sunday, November 24 Oswald was being led through the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters preparatory to his transfer to the county jail when, at 11:21 a.m., Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby stepped from the crowd and shot Oswald in the abdomen. Oswald died at 1:07 p.m. at Parkland Memorial Hospital—the same hospital where Kennedy had died two days earlier.[109]

A network television camera, there to cover the transfer, was broadcasting live at the time, and millions thereby witnessed the shooting as it happened.[151] The event was also captured in a well-known photograph (see right). Ruby later said he had been distraught over Kennedy's death, though some have hypothesized it was part of a conspiracy.[152]

After autopsy, Oswald[153] was buried in Fort Worth's Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park.[154][155] A marker inscribed simply Oswald replaces the stolen original tombstone, which gave Oswald's full name and birth–death dates.[156]

Official investigations

Warren Commission

The Warren Commission, created by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination, concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy (this view is known as the lone gunman theory). The Commission could not ascribe any one motive or group of motives to Oswald's actions:

It is apparent, however, that Oswald was moved by an overriding hostility to his environment. He does not appear to have been able to establish meaningful relationships with other people. He was perpetually discontented with the world around him. Long before the assassination he expressed his hatred for American society and acted in protest against it. Oswald's search for what he conceived to be the perfect society was doomed from the start. He sought for himself a place in history — a role as the "great man" who would be recognized as having been in advance of his times. His commitment to Marxism and communism appears to have been another important factor in his motivation. He also had demonstrated a capacity to act decisively and without regard to the consequences when such action would further his aims of the moment. Out of these and the many other factors which may have molded the character of Lee Harvey Oswald there emerged a man capable of assassinating President Kennedy.[157]

The proceedings of the commission were closed, though not secret, and about 3% of its files have yet to be released to the public, which has continued to provoke speculation among researchers.[n 13]

Ramsey Clark Panel

In 1968, the Ramsey Clark Panel examined various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence, concluding that Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone, and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its right side.[158]

House Select Committee

In 1979, after a review of the evidence and of prior investigations, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations was preparing to issue[citation needed] a finding that Oswald had acted alone in killing Kennedy. However, late in the Committee's proceedings a Dictabelt was introduced,[clarification needed] purportedly recording sounds heard in Dealey Plaza before, during and after the shots were fired. After submitting the Dictabelt to acoustic analysis, the Committee revised its findings to assert a "high probability that two gunmen fired" at Kennedy and that Kennedy "was probably assassinated as the result of a conspiracy." Although the Committee was "unable to identify the other gunman or the extent of the conspiracy," it made a number of further findings regarding the likelihood or unlikelihood that particular groups, named in the findings, were involved.[159]

The Dictabelt evidence has been questioned, some believing it is not a recording of the assassination at all.[160] The staff director and chief counsel for the Committee, G. Robert Blakey, told ABC News[when?] that at least 20 persons heard a shot from the grassy knoll, and that a conspiracy was established by both the witness testimony and acoustic evidence, but in 2004 he expressed less confidence.[161] Officer H.B. McLain, from whose motorcycle radio the HSCA acoustic experts said the Dictabelt evidence came,[162][163] has repeatedly stated that he was not yet in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination.[164] McLain asked the Committee, "‘If it was my radio on my motorcycle, why did it not record the revving up at high speed plus my siren when we immediately took off for Parkland Hospital?’”[165]

In 1982, a group of twelve scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), led by Norman Ramsey, concluded that the acoustic evidence submitted to the HSCA was "seriously flawed."[citation needed] Subsequently, a 2001 article in Science and Justice, the journal of Britain's Forensic Science Society, said that the NAS investigation was itself flawed and concluded with a 96.3 percent certainty that there were at least two gunmen firing at President Kennedy and that at least one shot came from the grassy knoll.[166] Commenting on the British study, G. Robert Blakey said: "This is an honest, careful scientific examination of everything we did, with all the appropriate statistical checks."[167]

Other investigations and dissenting theories

Image CE-133A, one of three known "backyard photos," the same image sent by Oswald (as a first-generation copy) to George de Mohrenschildt in April, 1963, dated and signed on the back. Oswald holds a Carcano rifle, with markings matching those on the rifle found in the Book Depository after the assassination.

Critics have not accepted the conclusions of the Warren Commission and have proposed a number of other theories, such as that Oswald conspired with others, or was not involved at all and was framed.

In October 1981, with Marina's support, Oswald's grave was opened to test a theory propounded by writer Michael Eddowes: that during Oswald's stay in the Soviet Union he was replaced with a Soviet double; that it was this double, not Oswald, who killed Kennedy and who is buried in Oswald's grave; and that the exhumed remains would therefore not exhibit a surgical scar Oswald was known to carry. However, dental records positively identified the exhumed corpse as Oswald's, and the scar was present.[n 14]

Fictional trials

Several films[168] have fictionalized a trial of Oswald. In 1988, a 21-hour unscripted mock trial was "held" on television, argued by actual lawyers before an actual judge,[169] with unscripted testimony from surviving witnesses to the events surrounding the assassination; the mock jury returned a verdict of guilty. Author Gerald Posner (whose book Case Closed endorses the Warren Commission's conclusions) participated[clarification needed] in a shorter, scripted mock trial for television.[citation needed]

Backyard photos

Lee Harvey Oswald's Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives

The "backyard photos", taken by Marina Oswald probably around March 31, 1963 using a camera belonging to Oswald, show Oswald holding two Marxist newspapers—The Militant and The Worker—and a rifle, and wearing a pistol in a holster.[170] Shown the pictures after his arrest, Oswald insisted they were forgeries,[171] but Marina testified in 1964 that she had taken the photographs at Oswald's request—[172] testimony she reaffirmed repeatedly over the decades.[n 15] These photos were labelled CE 133-A and CE 133-B. CE 133-A shows the rifle in Oswald's left hand and newsletters in front of his chest in the other, while the rifle is held with the right hand in CE 133-B. Oswald's mother testified that on the day after the assassination she and Marina destroyed another photograph with Oswald holding the rifle with both hands over his head, with "To my daughter June" written on it.[173]

The HSCA obtained another first generation print (from CE 133-A) on April 1, 1977 from the widow of George de Mohrenschildt. The words "Hunter of fascists — ha ha ha!" written in block Russian were on the back. Also in English were added in script: "To my friend George, Lee Oswald, 5/IV/63 [April 5, 1963]"[174] Handwriting experts for the HSCA concluded the English inscription and signature were by Oswald. After two original photos, one negative and one first-generation copy had been found, the Senate Intelligence Committee located (in 1976) a third backyard photo (CE 133-C) showing Oswald with newspapers held away from his body in his right hand). A test photo by the Dallas Police of a stand-in in the identical pose was released with the Warren Commission evidence in 1964,[175] but it is not known why CE 133-C itself was not publicly acknowledged until a print was found in 1975 amongst the effects of a deceased Dallas police officer.[176]

These photos, widely recognized as some of the most significant evidence against Oswald, have been subjected to rigorous analysis.[177] Photographic experts consulted by the HSCA concluded they were genuine,[178] answering twenty-one points raised by critics.[179] Marina Oswald has always maintained she took the photos herself, and the 1963 de Mohrenschildt print bearing Oswald's signature clearly indicate they existed before the assassination. Nonetheless, some continue to contest their authenticity.[180] After digitally analyzing the photograph of Oswald holding the rifle and paper, computer scientist Hany Farid concluded[181] that it "almost certainly was not altered."[182]


  1. ^ These were investigations by: the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1963), the Warren Commission (1964), the House Select Committee on Assassinations (1979), and the Dallas Police Department.
  2. ^ The schools were:[citation needed]
    Reformatory: Youth House (NYC, NY), April/May 1953.
    (tried to enlist in U.S. Marines using affidavit claiming age 17)
    (worked as clerk/messenger in New Orleans, rather than school)
  3. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 705, CE 1385, Notes of interview of Lee Harvey Oswald conducted by Aline Mosby in Moscow in November 1959. Oswald: "When I was working in the middle of the night on guard duty, I would think how long it would be and how much money I would have to save. It would be like being out of prison. I saved about $1500." During Oswald's 2 years and 10 months of service in the Marine Corps he received $3,452.20, after all taxes, allotments and other deductions. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 26, p. 709, CE 3099, Certified military pay records for Lee Harvey Oswald for the period October 24, 1956, to September 11, 1959.
  4. ^ Though later reports described her uncle, with whom she was living, as a colonel in the KGB, he was actually a lumber industry expert in the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) with a bureaucratic rank of Polkovnik. Priscilla Johnson McMillan, Marina and Lee, Harper & Row, 1977, pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0060129538.
  5. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 123, Affidavit of Alexander Kleinlerer: "Anna Meller, Mrs. Hall, George Bouhe, and the deMohrenschildts, and all that group had pity for Marina and her child. None of us cared for Oswald because of his political philosophy, his criticism of the United States, his apparent lack of interest in anyone but himself, and because of his treatment of Marina."
  6. ^ The company has been cited as doing classified work for the US government, but this work was limited to typesetting for maps and carried out in a section to which Oswald had no access.
  7. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein: 'I would say he didn't get along with people and that several people had words with him at times about the way he barged around the plant, and one of the fellows back in the photosetter department almost got in a fight with him one day, and I believe it was Mr. Graef that stepped in and broke it up before it got started…'
  8. ^ This magazine was largely a satire of the performance of the Soviet system, not of the West—by this time Oswald had long been disillusioned with the U.S.S.R., as noted.
  9. ^ United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Testimony of Dr. Vincent P. Guinn:
    Mr. WOLF. In your professional opinion, Dr. Guinn, is the fragment removed from General Walker's house a fragment from a WCC (Western Cartridge Company) Mannlicher-Carcano bullet?
    Dr. GUINN. I would say that it is extremely likely that it is, because there are very few, very few other ammunitions that would be in this range. I don't know of any that are specifically this close as these numbers indicate, but somewhere near them there are a few others, but essentially this is in the range that is rather characteristic of WCC Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead.
  10. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Charles Givens. An FBI report from November 26, 1963 said that Depository employee Carolyn Arnold, as she left the building to watch the motorcade, thought she caught a fleeting glimpse of Oswald standing in the first floor hallway of the building, a few minutes before 12:15 pm. In 1978, she told author Anthony Summers that the FBI report misquoted her, and that she "clearly" saw Oswald sitting in the second floor lunchroom at 12:15 pm or slightly after. In either case, no other Depository employee reported seeing Oswald on the first or second floors between 12 noon and 12:30 pm (e.g., Mrs. Pauline Sanders, who left the second floor lunchroom at "approximately 12:20 pm," did not see Oswald at all that day). The two employees with whom Oswald said he ate lunch on the first floor both denied it.
  11. ^ The first report of Tippit's shooting was transmitted over Police Channel 1 some time between 1:16 and 1:19 p.m., as indicated by verbal time stamps made periodically by the dispatcher. Specifically, the first report began 1 minute 41 seconds after the 1:16 time stamp. Before that, witness Domingo Benavides could be heard unsuccessfully trying to use Tippit's police radio microphone, beginning at 1:16. Dale K. Myers, With Malice: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Murder of Officer J.D. Tippit, 1998, p. 384. ISBN 0-9662709-7-5.
  12. ^ By the evening of November 22, five of them (Helen Markham, Barbara Jeanette Davis, Virginia Davis, Ted Callaway, Sam Guinyard) had identified Lee Harvey Oswald in police lineups as the man they saw. A sixth (William Scoggins) did so the next day. Three others (Harold Russell, Pat Patterson, Warren Reynolds) subsequently identified Oswald from a photograph. Two witnesses (Domingo Benavides, William Arthur Smith) testified that Oswald resembled the man they had seen. One witness (L.J. Lewis) felt he was too distant from the gunman to make a positive identification. Warren Commission Hearings, CE 1968, Location of Eyewitnesses to the Movements of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Vicinity of the Tippit Killing.
  13. ^ "Two misconceptions about the Warren Commission hearing need to be clarified...hearings were closed to the public unless the witness appearing before the Commission requested an open hearing. No witness except one...requested an open hearing...Second, although the hearings (except one) were conducted in private, they were not secret. In a secret hearing, the witness is instructed not to disclose his testimony to any third party, and the hearing testimony is not published for public consumption. The witnesses who appeared before the Commission were free to repeat what they said to anyone they pleased, and all of their testimony was subsequently published in the first fifteen volumes put out by the Warren Commission." (Bugliosi, p. 332)
  14. ^ W. Tracy Parnell, The Exhumation of Lee Harvey Oswald. Contrary to reports, the skull of Oswald had been autopsied and this was also confirmed at the exhumation. W. Tracy Parnell, My Interview With Dr. Vincent J.M. Di Maio.
  15. ^
    Q. I want to mark these two photographs. On the back of the first one, which I would ask be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1, it says in the bottom right-hand corner copy from the National Archives, records group No. 272, under that it says CE-133B. I will ask that be marked JFK exhibit No. 1. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1 for identification.)
    Q. New, this second picture that I will ask to be marked says copy from the National Archives, record group No. 272, CE-133. I would ask that this be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2 for identification.)
    By Mr. KLEIN:
    Q. I will show you those two photographs which are marked JFK exhibit No. 1 and exhibit No. 2, do you recognize those two photographs?
    A. I sure do. I have seen them many times.
    Q. What are they?
    A. That is the pictures that I took.
    Mr. McDONALD. Mrs. Porter, I have got two exhibits to show you, if the clerk would procure them from the representatives of the National Archives. We have two photographs to show you. They are Warren Commission Exhibits C-133-A and B, which have been given JFK Nos. F-378 and F-379. If the clerk would please hand them to you, and also if we could now have for display purposes JFK Exhibit F-179, which is a blowup of the two photographs placed in front of you. Mrs. Porter, do you recognize the photographs placed in front of you?
    Mrs. PORTER. Yes, I do.
    Mr. McDONALD. And how do you recognize them?
    Mrs. PORTER. That is the photograph that I made of Lee on his persistent request of taking a picture of him dressed like that with rifle.
    • Marina Oswald Porter, interview with author Vincent Bugliosi and lawyer Jack Duffy, Dallas, Texas, November 30, 2000, reported in Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, p. 794.


  1. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 799, CE 1963, Schedule showing known addresses of Lee Harvey Oswald from the time of his birth.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Appendix 13: Biography of Lee Harvey Oswald", Warren Commission Report, pp. 670-682, 888 pages, 1964, webpage: [1].
  3. ^ "Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7, page 378". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  4. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Edward Pic.
  5. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 687, CE 1382, Interview with Mrs. John Edward Pic.
  6. ^ "Report of Renatus Hartogs, May 1, 1953". 1953-05-01. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  7. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 123, CE 2223, Big Brothers of New York, Inc., Case file of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  8. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  9. ^ Carro Exhibit No. 1 Continued at Kennedy Assassination Home Page.
  10. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Carro.
  11. ^ a b c d Bagdikian, Ben H. (December 14, 1963). Blair Jr., Clay. ed. "The Assassin". The Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia, PA. 19105: The Curtis Publishing Company) (44): 23.
  12. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapt. 7, p. 383.
  13. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, CE 2240, FBI transcript of letter from Lee Oswald to the Socialist Party of America, October 3, 1956.
  14. ^ Oswald, David Ferrie and the Civil Air Patrol, United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Volume 9, 4, p. 107.
  15. ^ Testimony of Edward Voebel, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 10, 12.
  16. ^ Bob Goodman, Triangle of Fire (Laquerian Publishing Co., 1993).
  17. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motives, Return to New Orleans and Joining the Marine Corps.
  18. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 665, Administrative Remarks.
  19. ^ Marines Warren Commission Report, Appendix 13, page 682-683.
  20. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Marine Corps service record of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  21. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Marine Training
  22. ^ Posner,Gerald "Case Closed" Random House, New York, 1993 pg. 28
  23. ^ "Lee Harvey Oswald - Lone Assassin or Patsy?". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  24. ^ Testimony of John E. Donovan, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 290, 298.
  25. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 94, 99. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  26. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 85, Request for Dependency Discharge.
  27. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, The Journey From USA to USSR at Russian Books
  28. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 94, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of October 16, 1959.
  29. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 2 at Russian Books
  30. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 3 at Russian Books
  31. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 1 at Russian Books
  32. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 108, CE 912, Declaration of Lee Harvey Oswald, dated November 3, 1959, requesting that his U.S. citizenship be revoked.
  33. ^ State Department Memorandum from John A. McVickar to Thomas Ehrlich, dated November 27, 1963, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 155, CE 941
  34. ^ Foreign Service Despatch from the American Embassy in Moscow to the Department of State, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 98, CE 908
  35. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, CE 780, Documents from Lee Harvey Oswald's Marine Corps file.
  36. ^ "Texas Marine Gives Up U.S. For Russia", The Miami News, October 31, 1959, p1
  37. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 3 at Russian Books
  38. ^ Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 2 at Russian Books
  39. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7
  40. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 102, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of January 4–31, 1961.
  41. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 131, CE 931, Undated letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to the American Embassy in Moscow.
  42. ^ "Oswald Letters". Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  43. ^ United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, vol. 2 p. 207, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, September 13, 1978.
  44. ^ The Warren Report, Appendix 8, p. 712, Biography of Lee Harvey Oswald
  45. ^ "Young Ex-Marine Asks To Be Russian Citizen", Oakland Tribune, October 31, 1959, p. 1. "Ex-Marine Requests Citizenship", New York Times, November 1, 1959, p. 3. "Texan in Russia: He Wants to Stay", Dallas Morning News, November 1, 1959, sec. 1, p. 9. "Brother Tries to Telephone, Halt Defector", Oakland Tribune November 2, 1959, p. 8. "U.S. Boy Prefers Russia", Syracuse Herald-Journal, December 11, 1959, p. 46. "Third Yank Said Quitting Soviet Union, San Mateo Times, June 8, 1962, p. 8. "Marine Returning", The Lima News, June 9, 1962, p. 1.
  46. ^ "Warren Commission Report Chapter 7 — Relationship with Wife". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  47. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 298, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 307, Testimony of Mrs. Katherine Ford. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 252, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 238, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 266, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt.
  48. ^ George de Mohrenschildt. Staff Report of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, Volume 12, 4, p. 53-54, 1979.
  49. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 9, p. 226, Testimony of George S. de Mohrenschildt.
  50. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 435, Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine.
  51. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 2, p. 385, Testimony of Michael R. Paine.
  52. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 11, p. 396, Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine.
  53. ^ "Warren Report C.E. 1886 shows his last weekly paycheck was for work ending April 6." (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  54. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 288, Photograph of the face sides of a Selective Service System Notice of Classification. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, p. 201, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein.
  55. ^ "Warren Commission Report p. 184-195". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  56. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 16, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  57. ^ The Assassin, Warren Commission Report, p. 118-119,
  58. ^ Questioned Documents, Warren Commission Report, Appendix 10, p. 567-571.
  59. ^ Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations, HSCA Final Report, p. 61.
  60. ^ "HSCA Final Report: I. Findings - A. Lee Harvey Oswald Fired Three Shots..." (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  61. ^ "Officials Recall Sniper Shooting at Walker Home", Dallas Morning News, November 23, 1963, sec. 1, p. 15.
  62. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 392–393, CE 1785, Secret Service report dated December 5, 1963, on questioning of Marina Oswald about note Oswald wrote before he attempted to kill General Walker.
  63. ^ Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 393–394.
  64. ^ "Oswald Notes Reported Left Before Walker Was Shot At", Dallas Morning News, December 31, 1963, sec. 1, p. 6.
  65. ^ "FBI Unable to Link Walker Slug, Rifle", Dallas Moring News, December 20, 1963, sec. 1, p. 7.
  66. ^ The Warren Report, Chapter 7, p. 403, Lee Harvey Oswald -- Background and Possible Motives; Personal Relations
  67. ^ The Warren Report, Chapter 6, p. 284, Investigation of Possible Conspiracy; Background of Lee Harvey Oswald
  68. ^ Scott, Peter Dale. Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993), p. 95. ISBN 0-520-20519-7
  69. ^ The Warren Report, Chapter 7, pp. 403-404, Lee Harvey Oswald -- Background and Possible Motives; Personal Relations
  70. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 219. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  71. ^ HSCA Final Assassinations Report, House Select Committee on Assassinations, p. 146.
  72. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 219. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  73. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), p. 229. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  74. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 2, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 512.
  75. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 3, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 515.
  76. ^ Lee (Vincent T.), Exhibit No. 4, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 518.
  77. ^ FBI Report of Investigation of Lee Harvey Oswald's Activities for Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New Orleans, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 25, pp. 770, 773.
  78. ^ Political Activies, Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7, p. 407.
  79. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, pp. 34–37, Testimony of Carlos Bringuier.
  80. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 211. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  81. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), p. 146. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  82. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 211-212. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  83. ^ Douglas, James. JFK and the Unspeakable, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008), p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4391-9388-4
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  85. ^ Douglas, James. JFK and the Unspeakable, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008), p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4391-9388-4
  86. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 21, p. 633, Stuckey Exhibit 3, Literal transcript of an audio-tape recording of a debate among Lee Harvey Oswald, Carlos Bringuier, and Edward Butler on August 21, 1963, Radio station WDSU, New Orleans.
  87. ^ 544 Camp Street and Related Events, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 13, p. 123.
  88. ^ 544 Camp Street and Related Events, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 13, pp. 123-4.
  89. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), p. 235. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  90. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), pp. 100, 236. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  91. ^ 544 Camp Street and Related Events, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 13, pp. 126-7.
  92. ^ 544 Camp Street and Related Events, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 13, p. 128.
  93. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 229. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  94. ^ 544 Camp Street and Related Events, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 8, p. 129.
  95. ^ David Ferrie, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 12, p. 110.
  96. ^ FBI Interview of David Ferrie, November 25, 1963, Warren Commission Document 75, p. 286.
  97. ^ David Ferrie, House Select Committee on Assassinations - Appendix to Hearings, Volume 10, 12, p. 105.
  98. ^ PBS Frontline "Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald", broadcast on PBS stations, November 1993 (various dates).
  99. ^ The Warren Report, Chapter 6, p. 284, Investigation of Possible Conspiracy; Background of Lee Harvey Oswald
  100. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 3, pp. 7-9, Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine Resumed.
  101. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 11, pp. 214-215, Affidavit of John Bryan McFarland and Meryl McFarland.
  102. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 418, CE 2564, Cuban visa application of Lee Harvey Oswald, September 27, 1963.
  103. ^ (undated) Oswald's Foreign Activities (Coleman and Slawson to Rankin) (page 94) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center
  104. ^ Warren Commission Report, p. 413
  105. ^ Oswald: Myth, Mystery, and Meaning, FRONTLINE, November 20, 2003
  106. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 8, p. 358, Letter from Lee Oswald to Embassy of the U.S.S.R., Washington, D.C., November 9, 1963. CIA Report on Oswald's Stay in Mexico, December 13, 1963. (page 19) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center.
  107. ^ The Warren Report, Chapter 1, pp. 14-15, Summary and Conclusions
  108. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, volume 3, p. 216, Testimony of Roy Sansom Truly.
  109. ^ a b Bagdikian, Ben H. (December 14, 1963). Blair Jr., Clay. ed. "The Assassin". The Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia, PA. 19105: The Curtis Publishing Company) (44): 26.
  110. ^ Warren Commission Report, p. 739.
  111. ^ [2].
  112. ^ Church, Frank (1976-04-23). "Book V: The Investigation of the Assassination of President J.F.K.: Performance of the Intelligence Agencies, Appendix B". U.S. Government Printing Office, Senate, Report 94-755, Church Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
  113. ^ HSCA Final Assassinations Report, House Select Committee on Assassinations, pp. 195-196.
  114. ^ Dallas Morning News, November 19, 1963. Dallas Times Herald, November 19, 1963, p. A-13.
  115. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. I, p. 72-73, Testimony of Marina Oswald.
  116. ^ Magen Knuth, The Long Brown Bag.
  117. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Roy Sansom Truly.
  118. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz
  119. ^ Bus transfer (.gif) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  120. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Earlene Roberts.
  121. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Movements After Leaving Depository Building.
  122. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 113, Barnes Exhibit A, Right side of Tippit squad car, showing open wing vent window.
  123. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, The Killing of Patrolman J.D. Tippit.
  124. ^ The third eyewitness was Jack Ray Tatum. "Oswald-Tippit Associates", HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 12, p. 40–41.
  125. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chaper 4: The Assassin, Description of Shooting.
  126. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, pp. 466–473, Testimony of Cortlandt Cunningham. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 511, Testimony of Jospeh D. Nicol.
  127. ^ Tippit Murder: Findings and Conclusions, 7 HSCA 376.
  128. ^ Testimony of Johnny Calvin Brewer, 7 H 3–5.
  129. ^ Testimony of Julia Postal, 7 H 11.
  130. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of M. N. McDonald.
  131. ^ "Oswald and Officer McDonald:The Arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald". Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  132. ^ Copy of an undated statement made by Richard M. Sims and E. L. Boyd concerning the events surrounding the assassination, 21 H 512–514.
  133. ^ Testimony of J.W. Fritz, 4 H 206.
  134. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 5: Detention and Death of Oswald, Chronology. Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
  135. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3 — Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination.
  136. ^ Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film),
  137. ^ Lee Oswald's Midnight Press Conference,
  138. ^ "Photo of the order slip and order envelope for the murder weapon". Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  139. ^ CE 697 shows A. J. Hidell as alternate name on Oswald New Orleans P.O. Box
  140. ^ This box had been rented by Oswald in Dallas under his own name of Oswald, but postal inspector Harry D. Holmes of the Dallas Post office testified that a notice of receipt for any package would have been left in a Dallas P.O. box, no matter who the listed-recipient for the package was, and thereafter anyone presenting the notice for the package to the office window, demonstrating they had access to the box, would have been able to receive any package for the box, without identification. See Warren Report p. 121 of 912.
  141. ^ Warren Commission Report, pp. 180-182.
  142. ^ Volume XVII of the Warren report with facsimile of card (CE 795) with Commission notation: "A spurious Selective Service System notice of classification card in the name "Alek James Hidell." See for the card (illustrated at right)
  143. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 4, Testimony of James P. Hosty, Jr., p. 467-468; Testimony of J.W. Fritz, p. 213-214; Commission Exhibit 2003, Dallas Police Department file on investigation of the assassination of the President, "Interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald", vol. 4, p. 265.
  144. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, vol. 7, p. 302.
  145. ^ Testimony of H. Louis Nichols, 7 H 328–329.
  146. ^ Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, 7 H 299–300.
  147. ^ Jesse E. Curry, Retired Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry Reveals His Personal JFK Assassination File, Self-published, 1969, p. 74, affidavit of Dallas police officer Thurber T. Lord on August 20, 1964.
  148. ^ Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, 3 H 88–89.
  149. ^ Testimony of John J. Abt, 10 H 116.
  150. ^ Robert L. Oswald, Lee: A Portrait of Lee Harvey Oswald by His Brother, Coward-McCann, 1967, p. 145.
  151. ^ Bergreen, Laurence, (1980). Look Now, Pay Later: The Rise of Network Broadcasting. New York: Doubleday and Company. ISBN 978-0451619662.
  152. ^ G. Robert Blakey, chief council for the House Select Committee on Assassinations from 1977 to 1979, said, "The most plausible explanation for the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby was that Ruby had stalked him on behalf of organized crime, trying to reach him on at least three occasions in the forty-eight hours before he silenced him forever." Goldfarb, Ronald (1995). Perfect Villains, Imperfect Heroes: Robert F. Kennedy's War Against Organized Crime. Virginia: Capital Books. p. 281. ISBN 1-931868-06-9.
  153. ^ "Oswald's body after death". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  154. ^ Directions to Lee Harvey Oswald's Grave at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  155. ^ "Photos of Gravesite". Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  156. ^ "Who was Lee Harvey Oswald? - A chronology of Lee Harvey Oswald's life". Retrieved 2010-09-17.
  157. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Unanswered Questions.
  158. ^ 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas (.txt) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  159. ^ Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations HSCA Final Report, pp. 3.
  160. ^ Holland, Max. The JFK Lawyers' Conspiracy Published in The Nation on unknown date, reposted by George Mason University's History News Network, February 6, 2006
  161. ^ "G. Robert Blakey". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  162. ^ Testimony of Mark Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, 5 HSCA 617.
  163. ^ G. Robert Blakey and Richard N. Billings, The Plot to Kill the President, Times Books, 1981, p. 103. ISBN 978-0812909296.
  164. ^ Greg Jaynes, The Scene of the Crime, Afterward.
  165. ^ "Separate Views of Hons. Samuel L. Devine and Robert W. Edgar", HSCA Report, pp. 492–493.
  166. ^ Donald B. Thomas, "Echo Correlation Analysis and the Acoustic Evidence in the Kennedy Assassination Revisited", Science and Justice, Volume 41(1), 2001 Retrieved 10 April 2010
  167. ^ George Lardner Jr., "Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll' ", Washington Post, March 26, 2001
  168. ^ The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald (1964); The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald (1977, unrelated to the first film); On Trial: Lee Harvey Oswald (1986)
  169. ^ Vincent Bugliosi,Reclaiming History
  170. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Photograph of Oswald With Rifle
  171. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Denial of Rifle Ownership.
  172. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 15, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  173. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 146, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  174. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, p. 151, Figure IV-21.
  175. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 497, CE 712, Photographs taken by the Dallas Police Department on November 29, 1963, showing backyard of home on Neely Street in Dallas, where Oswald once lived.
  176. ^ United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Appendix to Hearings, p. 141, The Oswald Backyard Photographs.
  177. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, "The Oswald Backyard Photographs".
  178. ^ "id.". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  179. ^ "United States House Select Committee on Assassinations Report Chapter VI". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  180. ^ United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, Testimony of Jack D. White.
  181. ^ Farid, H (2009). "The Lee Harvey Oswald backyard photos: real or fake?". Perception 38 (11): 1731–1734. doi:10.1068/p6580. PMID 20120271.
  182. ^ Dartmouth Professor finds that iconic Oswald photo was not faked. 11/05/09.

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